Thursday, January 22, 2015

Moral concerns increase attention and response monitoring during IAT performance: ERP evidence.

Moral concerns increase attention and response monitoring during IAT performance: ERP evidence.
Previous research has revealed that people value morality as a more important person characteristic than competence. In this study, we tested whether people adjust their less explicit behavior more to moral than competence values. Participants performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that was either framed as a test of their morality or as a test of their competence. The behavioral results revealed a smaller IAT effect (i.e. a weaker negative implicit bias toward Muslims) in the morality condition than in the competence condition. Moreover, event-related potentials indicated increased social categorization of faces (as indexed by the N1 and P150) and enhanced conflict- and error monitoring (N450 and error-related negativity) in the morality condition compared to the competence condition. These findings indicate that an emphasis on morality can increase attentional and motivational processes that help to improve people's task performance.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Feb;9(2):141-9

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Everyday Morality

BACKGROUND: most studies of morality have looked at artificial laboratory settings.

QUESTION: how is everyday morality expressed outside of a research lab?

METHODS: 1252 people were evaluated, looking for episodes of moral and immoral acts in their life

RESULTS: Liberals and conservatives had slightly different moral dimensions, but religious versus nonreligious people did not differ in their moral dimensions. Receiving moral or immoral deeds had a strongest impact on happiness, whereas committing moral or immoral deeds a strong impact on sense of purpose.

Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1340-3

Monday, November 10, 2014

Are Neural Responses to Moral Dilemmas Different in Atheists?

QUESTION: are neural responses to standard moral dilemmas are influenced by religious belief?

METHODS: 11 Christians and 13 atheists were confronted with 48 different moral dilemmas and their neural activity measured.

RESULTS: a difference in neural activity between the atheists and the Christians was observed in the precuneus and in prefrontal, frontal and temporal regions.

CONCLUSION: the neurological response to moral judgment appears to be influenced by religious belief.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Feb;9(2):240-9

Monday, October 20, 2014

Ethics in medical research and publication

Ethics in medical research and publication.
OBJECTIVE: To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing

METHODS: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature.

CONCLUSIONS: Invest in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research bioethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity.

Int J Prev Med. 2014 Sep;5(9):1073-82

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Hope as a Moral Competency in Nursing

Sustaining hope as a moral competency in the context of aggressive care.
OBJECTIVE: How can nurses preserve the hope of seriously ill patients without providing false hope?
FINDINGS: One overarching theme was identified: 'Mediating the tension between providing false hope and destroying hope within biomedicine.'

DISCUSSION: This competency represents a complex set of skills. Nurses must be able to imagine possible future hopes, be able to acknowledge death, and challenge those around them when the provision of aggressive care is a form of providing false hope.

Nurs Ethics. 2014 Oct 14;

Saturday, March 29, 2014

The ethics of the missing straw.

This case report details the emergency department course of a 34 year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding after reportedly falling one week earlier. She was subsequently found to have a drinking straw within her uterus next to an eight week-old live intrauterine pregnancy on ultrasound. This case report and discussion reviews the literature on retained foreign bodies in pregnancy while addressing the added complications of an evasive patient and a difficult consultant with significant intra-specialty disagreement.

West J Emerg Med. 2014 Mar;15(2):131-3

Moral development of first-year pharmacy students in the United kingdom.

Objective. To investigate the moral development of pharmacy students over their first academic year of study at a university in the United Kingdom. Methods. Pharmacy students completed Defining Issues Test (DIT) at the start of their first year (phase 1) and again at the end of their first year (phase 2) of the program. Results. Pharmacy students (N=116) had significantly higher moral reasoning at the beginning of their first year than by the end of it. Scores differed by students' gender and age; however, these findings differed between phase 1 and phase 2. Conclusion. First-year pharmacy students in the United Kingdom scored lower on moral reasoning than did pharmacy students in the United States and Canada.

Am J Pharm Educ. 2014 Mar 12;78(2):36