Ethics support in institutional elderly care: a review of the literature.J Med Ethics. 2014 Feb 27;
Authors: van der Dam S, Molewijk B, Widdershoven GA, Abma TA
Clinical ethics support mechanisms in healthcare are increasing but little is known about the specific developments in elderly care. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic literature review on the characteristics of existing ethics support mechanisms in institutional elderly care. A review was performed in three electronic databases (Pubmed, CINAHL/PsycINFO, Ethxweb). Sixty papers were included in the review. The ethics support mechanisms are classified in four categories: 'institutional bodies' (ethics committee and consultation team); 'frameworks' (analytical tools to assist care professionals); 'educational programmes and moral case deliberation'; and 'written documents and policies'. For each category the goals, methods and ways of organising are described. Ethics support often serves several goals and can be targeted at various levels: case, professional or organisation. Over the past decades a number of changes have taken place in the development of ethics support in elderly care. Considering the goals, ethics support has become more outreaching and proactive, aiming to qualify professionals to integrate ethics in daily care processes. The approaches in clinical ethics support have become more diverse, more focused on everyday ethical issues and better adapted to the concrete learning style of the nursing staff. Ethics support has become less centrally organised and more connected to local contexts and primary process within the organisation.