The nature of ethical conflicts and the meaning of moral community in oncology practice.Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014 Mar 1;41(2):130-40
Authors: Pavlish C, Brown-Saltzman K, Jakel P, Fine A
Purpose/Objectives: To explore ethical conflicts in oncology practice and the nature of healthcare contexts in which ethical conflicts can be averted or mitigated.Research Approach: Ethnography.Setting: Medical centers and community hospitals with inpatient and outpatient oncology units in southern California and Minnesota.Participants: 30 oncology nurses, 6 ethicists, 4 nurse administrators, and 2 oncologists.Methodologic Approach: 30 nurses participated in six focus groups that were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Twelve key informants were individually interviewed. Coding, sorting, and constant comparison were used to reveal themes.Findings: Most ethical conflicts pertained to complex end-of-life situations. Three factors were associated with ethical conflicts: delaying or avoiding difficult conversations, feeling torn between competing obligations, and the silencing of different moral perspectives. Moral communities were characterized by respectful team relationships, timely communication, ethics-minded leadership, readily available ethics resources, and provider awareness and willingness to use ethics resources.Conclusions: Moral disagreements are expected to occur in complex clinical practice. However, when they progress to ethical conflicts, care becomes more complicated and often places seriously ill patients at the epicenter.Interpretation: Practice environments as moral communities could foster comfortable dialogue about moral differences and prevent or mitigate ethical conflicts and the moral distress that frequently follows.